One of the reasons why a PHP / MySQL combo seems so “slow” with regards to response times when moving from Windows 2003 (IIS6) to Windows 7/2008 (IIS7) / 2012 (IIS8), is the way many scripts connect to MySQL and having IPv6 enabled by default.
Many server installations leave WordPress or other PHP script installs to default to “localhost” when connecting to MySQL. Windows 7, 2008, 2012 have an issue with resolving localhost when IPv6 is enabled. With iishacks.com, the initial response time from MySQL goes from 600ms (using localhost) down to 70ms (using 127.0.0.1).
If your issue is initial response time, but MySQL seems to function well otherwise, your connection string may be at fault. Instead of disabling IPv6, try changing “localhost” to “127.0.0.1″ in your scripts and see if the response times improve.
Many content management systems and forums were originally created using the latin1 character set and the latin1_swedish_ci collation in MySQL. The problem many of these systems are facing today is the growing demand for multi-language content using special characters that cannot be accurately represented in the latin1 character set. This is where utf8 comes in.
The problem with simply converting a database from latin1 to utf8 is in the data itself. When you convert a database or table to a different character set or collation, it does not convert the content held within the tables. What happens is users end up with ‘strange’ characters in their data.
You can prevent this by taking steps to protect the data before you convert the database or tables.
An overview of the steps:
Backup the database. No, really, do it.
Alter the string field types to their binary equivalents in all tables. This will protect the data during conversion.
• VARCHAR to VARBINARY
• CHAR to BINARY
• LONGTEXT to LONGBLOB
• MEDIUMTEXT to MEDIUMBLOB
• TEXT to BLOB
• TINYTEXT to TINYBLOB
Convert the database and tables from latin1 to utf8 character set and latin1_swedish_ci to utf8_general_ci collation.
Convert the binary field types back to their original string field types.
Backup the resulting database.
Ex. Generic convert column to BLOB from TEXT
ALTERTABLE tbl_name MODIFY column_name BLOB
Ex. Generic convert table to new character set
ALTERTABLE tbl_name CHARACTER SET charset_name COLLATE collation_name
Ex. Generic convert database to new character set utf8
WordPress has long had a feature that dynamically replaces standard characters with their more visually appealing (and perhaps more accurate) symbols. In some cases the formatting may not be desirable.
Last year I wrote a few articles on Exchange Server errors. The errors typically follow the form of 0xNumber, ex. 0x8000000F. What wordpress was doing was replacing the “x” in the error with a “times” or multiplication symbol. So 0x0 would show up as 0×0.
Dynamic Replace Active
Dynamic Replace Inactive
My concern was that search engines DO distinguish between “x” and the symbol for multiplication. So when people were searching for 0x8004011D my posts did not show up, but when searching for 0×8004011D or 8004011D they did. If you do a google search with the “times” symbol instead of an “x” for exchange errors, you will find many posts otherwise hidden from the world.
The last string of the regular expression below represents a case for when there is a character followed by an x and by another character without spaces. The x will be replaced with the special character for “times” or &# 215 ;
The characters in the image below are the symbols for replacement. Generally the quotes are not misleading to search engines.
WordPress 3.3.x and Earlier
The following dynamic string variable is found in the \wp-includes\formatting.php file. If you wish to remove all dynamic characters, simply delete both lines and your wordpress posts will render correctly.
Avg Disk Queue Length is one of the main counters in the perfmon application. Avg Disk Queue Length is an estimate of requests on the physical or logical disk that are either in service or waiting for service. The value is a product of Disk Transfers/sec (response X I/O) and Avg Disk sec/Transfer.
What does it all mean? It’s confusing for many, but there are many instances where a high Avg Disk Queue Length does not mean a bottleneck. To see whether Avg Disk Queue Length is indeed showing a true representation of your disk’s performance, you need to compare Current Disk Queue Length over an interval. Add the Current Disk Queue Length to the counters graph in perfmon.
If the Current Disk Queue Length for the previous interval matches the Current Disk Queue Length for the current interval, then indeed the Avg. Disk Queue Length can be used as a general representation of the condition of your storage system.
Say your Avg. Disk Queue Length shows a value of 4, and the Current Disk Queue Length for the current interval is 3, and the previous interval was 0. This means the number of I/O arrivals is greater than the I/O completions during the interval. This results in an incorrect value for Avg Disk Queue Length – often to the horror of System Administrators.
Suppose you have determined the value of Avg Disk Queue Length is indeed accurate and useful – how much is too much? As a general rule for hard disks, an Avg Disk Queue Length greater than 2 (per hard disk) for extended periods of time is considered undesirable. If you have a RAID system with 8 disks, you do not want an Avg Disk Queue Length greater than 16. Faster hard disks with quicker access times (and therefore I/O) will allow greater flexibility with these numbers. Avg Disk sec/read and Avg Disk sec/write should be under 10ms – over 20ms may indicate a bottleneck. If while Avg. Disk Queue Length is over 2 and % Disk Time is hovering at 60% or above, you may want to look into a possible I/O bottleneck.
Below is a perfmon graph taken on a test machine. Avg Disk Queue Length reaches 36!! on a 2 disk RAID1 configuration.
Using another program called FileMon (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb896642.aspx) we are able to see each program being accessed on the machine in real-time. The small screenshot shows a section of DBServer operations all within the same second. As it turns out, there were well over 300 instances during a one-second interval, correlating to the spike that sent the Avg Disk Queue Length to 36.
This particular situation was a stress test comprised of 12 users performing typical operations at the same time on a networked database server. Obviously a 2 disk RAID1 system (10K SAS) was not up to the task.